In response to the climate challenge, the agreement recognizes that states have common but differentiated responsibilities, i.e. according to their national capabilities and specificities. The agreement officially entered into force on 4 November 2016, a few days before COP22, and was ratified by 169 countries (including the European Union 28), which account for 87.75% of emissions. As host and president of COP21, France is committed to supporting a multilateral negotiation process and listening to all stakeholders to reach an agreement: States parties are subject to certain legally binding rules, such as the requirement for developed countries to provide financial assistance to developing countries to enable them to implement the agreement. COP 21 or the Paris Climate Conference have resulted in a new international climate agreement that applies to all countries and aims to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius, in line with the recommendations of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Funding is essential to support emerging economies and support the transition to carbon-free economies. The agreement provides that from 2020, $100 billion in public and private funds will have to be mobilized each year to finance projects that allow countries to adapt to the effects of climate change (sea level rise, droughts, etc.) or to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These funds should be gradually increased and some developing countries will also be able to become donors on a voluntary basis to help the poorest countries. Environmentalists say Trump`s announcement to pull out of the Paris accord three years ago has made it easier for countries like Australia, Saudi Arabia and Brazil to weaken their own ambitions. The 197 "negotiators" committed to developing long-term strategies to develop low-greenhouse gas emissions. This is the first time that a universal agreement has been reached in the fight against climate change. For many projects, the cooperation agreement between France and UNESCO has made only a minimal, but essentially qualitative, financial contribution, as it has enabled the mobilization of major donors such as the French Development Agency, the European Union and the World Bank. It is an agreement with an "action agenda" to implement accelerators to ensure more ambitious progress beyond binding commitments.
The Paris Agreement, marked by the historic agreement once adopted, owes its success not only to the return of a framework favourable to climate change and sustainable development, but also to efforts to review the management of international climate negotiations. The Paris Agreement is supported by new initiatives that will all be adapted to the difficulties identified at the previous COP. This innovative approach is based on four elements: the adoption of a universal agreement.