24 Organizational PolicyThe use of power and influence in organizations © 2013 Cengage Learning 1 Chapter 11 Chapter Power and Political BehaviorSeecrate the concept of power. Identify the forms and sources of energy in organizations. Describe the role of ethics in the use of power. Identify symbols of power and powerlessness in organizations. Define organizational policy and understand the role of political skill and great influence tactics. Identify ways to manage political behaviour in organizations. Learning Results © 2013 Cengage Learning As mentioned above, power represents the ability of an individual or group to ensure compliance with another person or group. Nothing is said here about the right to comply with the regulations, only on capacity. On the other hand, authority is the right to demand respect by others; the exercise of authority is supported by legitimacy. When an official orders a secretary to seize certain letters, it is likely that he or she is entitled to make such an application. However, if the same manager asks the personal shopping secretary, it would be beyond the bounds of the legitimate exercise of authority.
While the secretary may continue to respond to this request, the secretary`s respect would be based on considerations of power or influence, not authority. The opposite of the power of reward, coercive power is the ability to punish someone for not respecting an order or direction. It complements legitimate power, but in a negative way, because respect is not achieved out of respect, but out of fear. Examples of coercion power are threats of union strikes, refusals to promote or increase wages, and litigation. French and Raven have identified 5 forms of interpersonal power that managers use to influence other people and employees. The 5 forms are: the nature of the relationship between A and B. Moreover, the nature of the relationship between A and B may be a factor of dependence on power. Are they peers A and B or superior and subordinate? Is the work permanent or temporary? For example, a person with a temporary job may be less willing to give consent because they will not be in that position for long. If A and B are peers or good friends, the process of influence is probably more delicate than if they are superior and subordinate. It`s a reward. Reward force exists when Person A has power over person B, because A controls the rewards that B wants.
These rewards can cover a wide range of opportunities, including salary increases, promotions, desirable work orders, increased responsibilities, new equipment, etc. Studies have shown that rewards are often more effective because employees see a high reward capacity.8 However, in many organizations, superiors and managers do not control many rewards. For example, among most workers, wages and promotion are based on an employment contract and not on a performance evaluation. Counter-power. Finally, a third factor to be taken into account in addictions to power is counter-power. The counter-power concept focuses on the extent to which B has other sources of energy to cushion the effects of power A. For example, if B is unionized, the union`s power can be used to deny A`s attempts to influence. The use of counter-power is evident in many situations where different coalitions try to negotiate among themselves and control the power of their opponents. The agent has this power over the target, because the target wants to be like the agent. It is relatively easy to recognize the power of managers. They often have the ability to rent and fire, make important decisions, sign contracts, spend money, etc.